An ‘XY‘ pair is a coincident recording system that uses two cardioid diaphragm microphones at 90 degree angles with the capsules overlapping as to remove any phase (time) difference between the 2 signals.

It is not a wide stereo image unless placed very close to the sound source, however it is the most supported stereo configuration for down-mixing to mono as it has minimal phase issues. It is mostly used in close miking situations and in many handheld recorders.

image of XY mic configuration diagram

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